Medical theory of traditional Chinese Medicine
The theory of traditional Chinese medicine comes from the summary of medical experience and the thought of Yin Yang and five elements in ancient China. Its contents include the theory of essence and Qi, the theory of yin and Yang and five elements, Qi, blood and body fluid, Zang Xiang, meridians, physique, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment principles, health preservation, etc. As early as more than 2000 years ago, the monograph of traditional Chinese medicine Huangdi Neijing came out, which laid the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the theory, diagnosis and treatment of Chinese traditional medicine can be found in this book.
The theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine is gradually formed under the guidance of materialism and dialectics after long-term clinical practice. It comes from practice and in turn guides practice. Through the analysis of the phenomenon, in order to explore its internal mechanism. Therefore, this unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine has two basic characteristics: one is the overall concept, the other is syndrome differentiation and treatment. The basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine is a theoretical summary of human life activities and the law of disease changes. It mainly includes the theories of yin and Yang, five elements, Qi, blood and body fluid, visceral images, meridians and Qi, as well as the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, syndrome differentiation, treatment principles and methods, prevention, health preservation and so on.
Luck theory, also known as five movements and six Qi, is a theory to study and explore the impact of natural astronomy, meteorology and climate change on human health and diseases. The five transports include wood transport, fire transport, Earth transport, gold transport and water transport, which refers to the seasonal cycle of spring, summer, long summer, autumn and winter in a year. Six Qi are the six climatic factors of stroke, cold, heat, dampness, dryness and fire all year round. According to the astronomical and calendar parameters, the theory of luck is used to calculate and predict the laws of astronomical phenomena, climate and disease occurrence and epidemic in the coming year, and provide methods of prevention and health preservation.
Essence Qi Theory
Qi is the original material that constitutes all things in heaven and earth. The movement of Qi is called “Qi machine”, which has four forms of “lifting in and out”. Various changes caused by movement are called “gasification”, such as the “growth and aging” of animals and the “growth collection” of plants. Qi is the intermediary between heaven and earth, making it sympathetic and corresponding. For example, “man is connected with heaven and earth, corresponding to the sun and moon”. The essence of heaven and earth is transformed into man.
Yin Yang Theory
Yin and yang are the generalization of the attributes of the opposite sides of the interrelated things or phenomena in the universe. Initially, it refers to the back of the sun. The back of the sun is Yang and the back of the sun is Yin. The interaction of yin and Yang includes: Yin and Yang empathy, opposition restriction, mutual root and mutual use, growth and decline balance and mutual transformation.
Yin Yang theory is a category of ancient Chinese philosophy. Deng’s modern Yin and Yang is a division or subdivision of “unity of opposites” or “contradictory relationship”, which is a species relationship. The law of unity of opposites is the superior concept of “Yin and Yang”, and Yin and yang are the two inferior concepts of the unity of opposites.
Yin and yang are a pair of incompatible and closely related opposites. The connotation of yin and Yang negates each other. One concept “Yin” affirms the attribute of Yin of the object, while the other concept “Yang” negates the attribute affirmed by the concept of Yin as the attribute of Yang object.
The denotations of yin and yang are mutually exclusive and complementary, and their sum is equal to the denotation of their nearest generic concepts, that is, the sum or union of the denotations of the two concepts.
Yin Yang is a generalization of a pair of philosophical or logical categories of two different natures and attributes in the unity of opposites or contradictory relations, which is a pair of parallel concepts in which two things or one thing are interdependent, interrelated, opposite, mutually exclusive, mutually negative and opposite. (Deng Yu’s modern concept and definition of yin and Yang).
Through the observation of contradictory phenomena, people gradually raise the concept of contradiction to the category of yin and Yang, and use the growth and decline of yin and yang to explain the movement and change of things. The theory of yin and Yang holds that the world is material, and material is composed of yin and Yang. All vigorous exercise, extroversion, rising, warm and bright belong to Yang. The relatively static, inward guarding, descending, cold and dark belong to Yin. Therefore, there are two opposites of yin and Yang. Under the action of the growth and decline of yin and Yang and the unity of opposites, yin and Yang form all things in the world through mutual endowment, mutual restriction and mutual change. Traditional Chinese medicine uses the concept of the unity of opposites of yin and yang to explain the complex relationship between the upper and lower parts of the human body, internal and external parts, as well as the external links between human life and nature and society. The relative balance of the unity of opposites between yin and Yang is the basis for maintaining and ensuring the normal activities of the human body; The imbalance and destruction of the unity of opposites between yin and Yang will lead to human diseases and affect the normal activities of life.
Five elements theory
The five elements theory is an important achievement of ancient Chinese philosophy. The five elements theory uses the five philosophical categories of wood, fire, earth, gold and water to summarize the attributes of different things in the objective world, and uses the dynamic model of the five elements to explain the mutual connection and transformation law between things. In the five elements theory, the five internal organs are matched with the five elements, namely, liver and wood, heart and fire, spleen and soil, metal and lung, water and kidney. The five internal organs and the five elements are mutually generated and restrained, and should maintain relative balance, stability and harmony. If the five internal organs and five elements are out of balance, too much, too little or anti aggression will also lead to the occurrence of the disease, which provides a sufficient basis for inferring the improvement and malignant transformation of the disease and the treatment method. Traditional Chinese medicine mainly uses the five elements theory to explain the functional relationship between the five Zang and six Fu organs and the mechanism of disease when the Zang and Fu organs are unbalanced, which is also used to guide the treatment of Zang and fu organ diseases.
Five elements in traditional Chinese medicine reflects the relationship between the five systems of the human body with these five attributes. The five symbols of wood, fire, earth, gold and water respectively represent the five systems led by liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney. Traditional Chinese medicine does not study the micro theory of how viruses and bacteria act on the human body, but studies the relationship between various systems of the human body as a whole, and adjusts the balance between various systems through traditional Chinese medicine, massage, acupuncture and even psychological effects, so as to maintain physical health.
The interaction of the five elements includes: mutual generation, mutual restraint, institutionalization, victory and recovery, mutual insult, multiplication, mother child phase and.
Qi, blood and body fluid
Qi, blood and body fluid are the basic materials of human body and the material basis for physiological activities of viscera, meridians and other tissues and organs.
Qi is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains human life activities. It has the functions of promoting, warming, defense, fixation, gasification and so on. When Qi gathers together, it forms an organism, and when Qi disperses, the form perishes. Chuang Tzu said, “one Qi ears all over the world”, and the whole world is one Qi. With this breath, you will move, live and change. Without this breath, you will be finished.
Blood is the basic material that constitutes the human body and maintains human life activities. It has high nutrition and moisturizing effect. Blood must run in the pulse in order to play its physiological role. Blood circulates in the veins, reaching the viscera inside and the skin, flesh, muscles and bones outside. It constantly plays a full role in nutrition and moisturizing the viscera, tissues and organs of the whole body and maintains the normal physiological activities of the human body.
Body fluid refers to the internal body fluid and normal secretion of various organs, tissues and organs. It is the general name of all normal water and fluid of the body. The properties, functions and distribution parts of Jin He liquid are different. Jin means that it is clear and dilute in nature, has great fluidity, is distributed in the skin and muscles on the body surface, and can penetrate into the blood vessels, playing a role in moisturizing. Liquid refers to the thick nature and small fluidity. It flows into bone joints, viscera, brain and other tissues and plays a role in nourishing.
Qi, blood and body fluid are the energy required for physiological activities of organs, meridians and other tissues and organs, and Qi, blood and body fluid depend on the normal physiological activities of organs, meridians and other tissues and organs. If the replacement of Qi, blood and body fluid is not normal or the organs, meridians and other tissues and organs can not carry out normal physiological activities, it will lead to the occurrence of diseases.
The theory of Zang Fu organs mainly studies the physiological functions and pathological changes of five zang organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney), six Fu organs (small intestine, large intestine, stomach, bladder, gallbladder and triple energizer) and Qiheng Fu organs (brain, marrow, bone, pulse, gallbladder and female cells).
Zang: it refers to the five zang organs and the house of Qi and Heng in human body, which is generally called Zang Fu organs. Image: one refers to “image”, that is, the anatomical form of Zang Fu organs; The second refers to “signs”, that is, the physiological and pathological manifestations of the viscera; Three refers to “corresponding image”, that is, the viscera correspond to the image of yin and Yang in the four seasons.
Through the changes of external “image”, to measure the physiological and pathological state of internal “Tibet” is called “measuring Tibet from image”. That is, “depending on its external response, in order to know its internal organs”.
“Zang Fu organs” is not only the concept of anatomical type, but a comprehensive concept including anatomy, physiology and pathology.
Five internal organs: refer to liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney. The general function is “metabolizing and storing essence and Qi”.
Six Fu organs: refers to the gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, bladder and triple energizer. The general function is “decomposing water and grain, distinguishing turbid secretion and transmitting dross”.
Qiheng Mansion: refers to “brain, marrow, bone, pulse, gallbladder and female cell”.
Qi, blood and body fluid are the basic substances that constitute and maintain human life activities
The generation of Qi comes from nature and nurture. It is called “innate Qi” because it is endowed with the essence of its parents. The lung inhales natural clear Qi, and the Qi of water and grain produced by the spleen and stomach transportation of water and grain is collectively called “acquired Qi”.
Qi has the functions of promoting, warming, defense, fixation, gasification and nutrition.
The Qi of human body can be divided into yuan Qi, Zong Qi, Ying Qi, Wei Qi, Qi of viscera and Qi of meridians.
The movement of Qi is abnormal, which is called “out of tune of Qi machine”. Its manifestations include qi stagnation, qi depression, Qi inversion, qi depression, Qi detachment, Qi closure, etc.
Meridian theory. See acupuncture and acupoints
Meridians and collaterals are channels for the human body to run Qi and blood, connect the viscera, body, organs and orifices, and communicate up, down, inside and outside.
The meridian system includes twelve meridians, twelve meridians, eight odd meridians, fifteen meridians, floating meridians, sun meridians, twelve meridians, twelve skin parts, etc.
The importance of channels and collaterals in traditional Chinese medicine is as stated in Bian que Xin Shu: “learning medicine doesn’t know the channels and collaterals, so it’s wrong to open your mouth and start. If you cover the channels and collaterals, you can’t identify the root of disease and syndrome, and investigate the transmission and change of yin and Yang.”
Meridian theory is a theory that studies the close relationship between the physiological function and pathological changes of human meridians and viscera. Meridians are defined as the channels of Qi and blood in the human body, which play the role of communication inside and outside the network and the whole body. Under pathological conditions, the function of meridian system changes, and corresponding symptoms and signs will appear. Through these manifestations, visceral diseases can be diagnosed.
The Yellow Emperor’s Canon of internal medicine divides the causes into yin and Yang: “those born in Yang get wind, rain, cold and heat”, “those born in Yin get diet, residence, yin and Yang, happiness and anger”.
In the synopsis of the golden chamber, Zhang Zhongjing of the Han Dynasty divided the causes into three categories: “the internal cause is that the channels and collaterals are evil into the viscera”, “the nine orifices of the limbs, the blood is handed down from generation to generation, and the congestion is blocked by the external skin”, “the atrium, the golden blade, insects and animals are injured”.
In the Song Dynasty, Chen Wuxuan put forward the “three causes theory”: external causes, internal causes and no internal and external causes.
In modern times, the causes were divided into five categories:
Exogenous etiology: including six Yin (wind, cold, heat, dampness, dryness and fire) and epidemic Qi.
Causes of internal injury: including seven emotions (joy, anger, worry, sadness and fear), inappropriate diet and loss of labor and leisure.
Secondary causes: including phlegm, blood stasis and stones.
Other causes: including trauma, parasites, fetal transmission, various poisons and medical treatment.
Pathogenic evil Qi fights with healthy qi, which determines the development and change of disease. It is also called “the struggle between good and evil”.
“Evil Qi” generally refers to various pathogenic factors, “healthy qi” refers to the human body’s ability to repair and adjust itself, adapt to the environment, disease resistance, etc.
“Deficiency of healthy qi” is the internal basis of the disease, that is, “when evil gathers together, its Qi will be empty”, “healthy qi exists in the body, and evil can not be done”.
Constitution, emotion, region and climate are closely related to the disease.
Pathogenesis pathogenesis is the mechanism of disease occurrence, development and transmission, also known as “pathology”.
The basic pathogenesis includes: the rise and fall of evil and positive, the imbalance of yin and Yang, the disorder of Qi and blood, and the disorder of body fluid metabolism.
Endogenous five evils include: internal movement of wind, internal generation of cold, internal generation of dampness and turbidity, internal generation of Tianjin injury and dryness, and internal generation of fire and heat.
Transmission of disease position, including: external and internal access, transmission of six meridians, transmission of triple energizer, transmission of Wei Qi Ying blood, transmission of Zang Fu organs, etc.
Disease transformation, including cold and heat transformation, deficiency and excess transformation, etc.
Yuan Qi Theory
Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Yuan Qi is the most basic and important Qi of the human body. It is stored by the congenital kidney and nurtured by the spleen and stomach the day after tomorrow. It is widely distributed and diffused throughout the body through Sanjiao and meridians.